1: Music videos demonstrate genre characteristics such as stage performance in a rock video, dance routine in pop.
This is shown in Jay Z's '99 Problems' as sympathy is created with the use of black characters who are seen as criminals. The use of Brooklyn as a setting coincides with the rap genre as stereotypically places like Brooklyn are known to have 'ghetto' communities as it is heavily populated with black and mixed race people. There are various shots of religious objects which could refer to the sterotype of many black people being religious. In addition there are conventional close ups of chains, costumes, breakdancing- which could be seen as another stereotype, and dog fighting.
2: There is a relationship between lyrics and visuals. (illustrates, amplifies, contradicts).
In the music video, women are used as a commodity and are also used for the Male Gaze. It can be suggested the lyrics provide details of Jay Z's life which could also refer to mistreatment he possibly faced from authority- also in the music video the police officers are shown to be white which could further emphasis racial issues faced. The camera cuts to a man dressed in tradiontional African clothing when Jay Z says 'African' - this could further show the relationship between the lyrics and visuals.
3: There is a relationship between music and visuals (illustrates, amplifies, contradicts).
The music is fast paced and the editing of the video is in sync with the beat of the song. The use of black and white in editing could also reflect the gloomy atmosphere of the song. In addition, the audience could suggest the song sounds aggressive which could coincide to the scenes in the music video such as the scene of the gun fight towards the end.
4: The demands of the record label will incude the need for lots of close ups of the artist and the artist may develop motifs which recurs across their work (a visual style)
Through the use of low angle close ups Jay Z is represented as superior to the audience, almost 'god-like'. The use of close up's allow the audience to immerse themselves in the song and into the video.
5: There is frequently reference to notion of looking (screens within screens, telescopes, etc) and particular voyeuristic treatment of the female body.The music video cuts to woman dressed provocatively and also dancing in a sexual manner. In addition, as the video is shot in Brooklyn it can be suggested the video's use of showing the community allows the audience to see the rougher side of Brooklyn.
6: There is often intertexual reference (to films, TV shows, other music videos etc)
It can be suggested Jay Z's 99 Problems created intertexuality for other music videos- he could be referencing himself in the video.